1. Context Specificity. Motor Learning 101: the more your practice looks like a competitive (or just one where you are keeping score - or really care) round of golf, the more the practice will transfer to the golf course. The less your practice looks like a competitive round of golf, the less it will transfer to the golf course. Period.
2. The Suvorov Principle. "Easy training, hard battle. Hard training, easy battle," - - legendary undefeated Russian military General Alexander Suvorov. In golf practice, this translates into making your practice more difficult than the actual game. Traditional practice tends to do the opposite...
3. Rest. The brain and central nervous system - the parts of the system that are doing the learning - need time to process, digest, and assimilate all that is being done. Practicing in 15-20 minute increments, followed by a break of approximately 5 minutes to reflect, contemplate and think about (without physically doing) is crucial for learning that endures.
4. Feedback. Accurate, relevant and timely feedback is critical to learning anything, golf being no exception.
5. "Desired Difficulties." You can't learn anything without 'failing' first. Less than perfect shots (think: when a child is learning to walk, and falls...) must be embraced, and viewed as fantastic learning opportunities - NOT something to be avoided. The "Challenge Point" theory is highly relevant here: practicing things that are slightly harder than what you are already good at.
6. Randomness, Chaos and Variety in practice. Golf is the most helter skelter game ever - yet it is practiced in incredibly boring, rote, and repetitive manners. The "inevitablilty of everything" must be practiced, as well. Expect nothing; prepare for everything.
7. Interleaving and the Spacing Effect: mixing up, and spreading out, boosts learning. 'Grooving' a certain club or shot often feels good emotionally - but falsely leads us to believe we are learning the skill. "Interleaving" - constantly changing clubs, lies, conditions, environments and situations - produces better recall, as well as the ability to handle new situations. The "spacing effect" speaks to the phenomenon whereby learning (and retention) is greater, when practice is spread out over time: multiple sessions for shorter periods of time, as opposed to a single session comprised of a large amount of time.
8. Quality. Over quantity. "If you don't have time to do it right, when are you going to have time to do it over?" -- John Wooden
9. Experienced. "Nothing has been learned until it has been experienced."
10. Individualized. Each golfer and human is a case study of 1. Methods and models are nice for statistical purposes, but the best way for you to swing a golf club and play the game are the ways that work best for you.